Central Java and Yogjakarta
Nature Reserves, Mining, Plantations maps
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Minerals and Mining
|Mineral cultivation also adds the export value, and this mainly cement raw material, identified that raw material contents such as in Wonogiri Regency (138,289 million tons), Blora (3,483 million tons), Grobogan (4,025 million tons), Kebumen (17,000 million tons), Pati (1,353 million tons), and Rembang (1,313 million tons). All of this is not geothermal potential yet which is in Semarang Regency.|
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|Car license numbers:
G: Pekalongan, Tegal, Brebes, Batang, Pemalang.
H: Semarang, Salatiga, Kendal, Demak.
K: Pati, Kudus,Jepara, Rembang, Blora,Grobogan.
R: Banyumas, Cilacap, Purbalingga, Banjarnegara.
AA: Kedu, Magelang, Purworejo, Kebumen, Temanggung, Wonosobo.
AB: Yokyakarta, Bantul, Kidul, Sleman, Kulon Progo.
AD: Surakarta, Sukoharjo, Boyolali, Sragen, Karanganyar, Wonogiri, Klaten.
|Yogyakarta, or short Yogya is one of the two still excisting traditional royal cities of Central Jawa; the other is Solo. The city is in the centre of a wide belt of fertile ricefields, which are dominated in the north by the smouldering Gunung Merapi, and in the south is limited because of the rough Indian Ocean.
The 3,169 sq.km. province of Yogyakarta counts 3,2 milion residents, on average more than one thousand per square kilometre. Yogya is among the most densely populated and most productive traditional agricultural areas in the world. The fact that low housing dominates, and most people still live in relatively small, selfsufficient village communities, this is even more remarkable. In the city itself live less than 500,000 people.
City of education and culture
Yogya is a city with many faces. Proud at it’s century-old Jawanese heir it attracts numerous painters, dancers and writers from all over the planet. The city where the Taman Siswa-schools and the Islamic Muhammadiyah-schools were founded, nowadays is a real student city. Besides the Gajad Mada University, which originates from the time of the revolution and is one of the most important Universities of the country, Yogya counts over fourty academies and institutes for higher education.
Besides a traditional Jawanese city, Yogya is also a place of refreshing ideas. On just a few paces from the serene kraton is the market where batik painters show their designs, influenced by foreigners. In the main streets computer stores pop up everywhere while satellite dishes and trendy residencial quarters dominate the city. During a celebration of Independence day, no one look if after a traditional golek-dance a group of trendy pop-dancers appear on the stage. In the tolerant cultural climate in Yogya traditions and modern things go hand in hand.
The kraton of Yogya was built between 1756 and 1790 by the founder of the city, sultan Hamengku Buwono I. It’s a beautiful example of traditional Jawanese royal architecture. As a royal residence, but most of all the centre of the principalty, the kraton was to be a miniature model of the Jawanese universe. All elements – pavilions, courts, gates and trees – have a symbolic meaning. The thought behind this constructions was to bring the royal court and the principalty together with the divine universe. With that, success for the ruler would be assured.
The northern pavilions
Arrivind from the city the first building that the visitor sees is the beautiful meeting hall, which has a view over the lawn of the northern square ( alun-alun lor ). This is the Pagelaran, where ministers and kratontroups will gather. The 64 pilars which carry the roof, are representing the perfection ( 8 times 8, the age at which the representative Muhamad died ). Now the hall serves at room for gamelan concerts and dancing shows during the Sekaten-festivities and the birthday of the sultan. Left and right of the meeting hall there are smaller pavilions where the royal officials were seated during audiences. Now the royal costumes are displayed.
Behind these pavilions some steps lead to a higher floor, the Siti Hinggil or ‘High Ground’. At this place the official inaugurations still take place, On a step in the centre is the throne of the sultan, or Bangsal Manguntur Tangkul, decorated with woodcarvings and gold leaf. In the building behind it are the royal jewelry, but only when the sultan is near.
Al these buildings can be visited. Entry cards can be optained at Pracimasono, just west of Pagelaran.
On the central court, which also was a sleeping place for Dutch soldiers once, is now the office of the palace guard and the Habiranda, the school for wayang-players. Opened on weekdays from 8 o’clock in the morning to 1 in the afternoon, at Fridays until 11 in the morning. Included with the – low – entry price is a guided tour.
The real kraton is accessable from the west side. At the big clock, hardly ever running on time, you can entere the shadowfull court, the northern Kemandungan or Keben ( because of the Keben-trees ). Once inside the heat and noise disappear, and you get a peacefull rest. The wide court exsist from black sand from the southern coast, and is overshadowed with leaves from big trees. The feeling of serenety is encouraged by the elegant game of lines through the buildings, painted with soft green and yellow, and by the friendly servants. In the centre of the court is a small pendopo, a stone throne, on which the sultan used to convict law violators.
Directly after the main gate is an enourmous wall, the baturana Just like on Bali, this barrier serves to protect the building from bad spirits. Since this bad spirits can only move in straight lines, they will never get in the building. Behind the wall is a smaller court with two pavilions and fruit trees. The western Bangsal Sri Manganti, where the sultan meets his guests, is empty. In the eastern Bangsal Trajumas are the carriages, used at weddings, and stuff for worship.
Right around the corner, on the central court Gedung Purworetno, is the private office of the sultan. Behind this is the Gedung Kuning with the private areas of the sultan. The open gallery contains 19th century European furniture, baroc mirrors, marble tables and crystal lights. The kantil-tree in the corner of the square is a holy tree.
Left of the gate is a music pavilion, built in European style. It has painted windows of trumpets, drums and other instruments. Once the palace musicians played European music in here, for example national anthems at special occasions.
The ‘Golden throne room’
The court is dominated by the wonderfull Bangsal Kencono or ‘Golden throne room’, of which the high joglo-roof represents the mountain Meru as the centre of the universe. From the bottum and upwards the decoration is a clear example of the Jawanese power of absorption: gold leafed lotus flowers from the Bhuddhism, a red with gold Hinduist motif, and the Arabic calligraphy represents the first line from the Koran: ‘There is no God than Allah’.
Behind the throne room is the bangsal Proboyekso, the place where the royal jewelry is kept behind glass. The Bangsal Kencono and the Bangsal proboyekso together form the heart of the kraton. These are the only buildings aimed towards the east – the direction of the rising sun, the source of all power.
Two small pavilions besides the Bangsal Kencono contain Sekaten-gamelans, which should origin from the 14th century, and are played once a year. Due south a long dinner room was built, complete with big windows and a marble floor. A head of a monster, surrounded by two snake-heads, shows the date of the restauration: 1853 ( A.D.1925 )
The rooms besides the southern and eastern side of the square are used for several purposes. In one of them, a daily tea is made for the sultan at 7 and 11 in the morning and 4 in the afternoon. Half way the morning tea is brought to the sultan, under sunshades and by older female servants. In another room, with the good nickname’Sarangboyo or ‘nest full of dangers’, liquors are prepared. Other rooms are used for storage of gamelan instruments and the treasury room.
Next is a crossing with some colonial buildings: the main post office (built in 1910), the Bank Negara Indonesia 1946 (built in 1923 at the Javasche Bank/Nillmij) and the former society (built in 1912, but partially bombarded in 1946), which nowadays serves as a theathre and gallery (Gedung Senisono); on Saturdays open-air concerts are given here.
Behind the monument for remembering the guerrilla-attack on the Dutch (1 March 1949), is the old fortress ‘Vredenburg’ which was built by Hamengku Buwono I for the same Dutch between 1756 and 1787. Once, 500 soldiers were stationed in this fortress which contained a hospital, prisons and a magasine. After a renovation a museum was placed in the old fortress, known as Benteng Budaya or ‘Culture Fortress’. in the spaceous airconditioned rooms, diorama’s show the climaxes of the battle for independence.
Across the fortress is one of the few remained colonial houses of Yogya. Built in 1823 as a residence, and rebuilt after the earthquake of 1869, it temporarily served as Presidential house during the revolution. Nowadays it is used to receive heads of state. In the beautiful garden are a few Indo-Jawanese statues. Just a little ahead is the Margo-Mulyo-church of the Reformed Parish. The church, sarced in 1830, is the oldest in the city.
The Beringharjo market
The central market of Yogya is north of Benteng Budoyo
The busy half-dark market whith its astonishing variety of goods is a small world on it’s own. Towers with tropical fruits, protected by sunscreens are varied by knife sellers and clothes, who work in half-dark stalls. In the narrow paths are many sorts of clothes, old and new batik, colorfull and bright or just not. The deparment of food is not hard to find after all, just follow the smell: meat and fish are sold between all kinds of vegetables and fruits. Somewhere else are the bamboo buckets and other things for daily use.
Who loves to look around in piles, lighted by no more than a few beams of sunlight, really should be here, but wathc out for muddy holes, pickpockets and ‘guides’, who will walk with you and try to get a commision whenever you buy someting. Some batik sellers will try to impress you with fixed prices, just bargain on them too, it’s normal.
The real Jalan Malioboro runs from the first major crossing to the railroad crossing. The main street from Yogya can’t handle the daily flood of traffic anymore. Bikes and becak’s already have their own lanes, separted by traffic islands, but crossing is a combination of luck, courage and timing.
The street is decorated with many shops which sell all kinds of goods: shirts and cloths, electronics, antiques and much more. The wide pavements are taken by local sellers which offer a big variety of goods. Many shops and some stalls have fixed prices, but here too, the law of the jungle, neotiating until the end.
Around nine o’clock in the evening the shops are closed and the street sellers will also shut down their businesses. The stalls are closed, and more food stalls open around that time. Fried chicken, pigeon and rice are common food in the area, they are prepared in ramshackle food stalls, but taste very good actually. During eating many people lesehan ‘sitting relaxed on the ground.
The next building is the Hotel Garuda, the former Grand Hotel. Across the streat, south of the train station is the quarter of Pasar Kembang, Flower Market. This former area of prostitutes now is the place of cheap hotels and restaurants, populair among cheap travellers.
Jalan P. Mangkubumi
‘The old Tugu train station, built by the Dutch in 1936 to break the two-day-trip from Batavia to Surabaya, is still used. Past the railroads, the street surrounded by hotels, shops, restaurants and offices is no longer called Jalan Malioboro, but Jalan P. Mangkubumi.
Kota Gede, sticking to Yogyakarta at the southeastern edge,
The reason to bring a visit to Kota Gede is because of the hundreds of silver shops each selling an unique collection of fine silver, handmade by one of the many skilled workers here. Almost every little factory (home workshop that usually is) has it’s own little shop at the front of the house, along one of the small streets of the village. There are some well-known brands like HS Silver, but others do just as good without that famous name. Generally prices here are reasonably fixed for retail buyers. Prices are stated on tags. Unlike in for example Bali, prices here are in Indonesian Rupiah instead of US dollars. The products sold here are to be found in Bali’s tourist area’s as well, they are exported to there from Kota Gede (among others of course).
Southern beaches of Yogyakarta
A trip to the deserted beaches of Baron, Kukup and Krakal, sixty kilometres southeast of Yogya, not only offers a fresh ocean wind, but also the wilderness of the Southern Mountains, or Gunung Kidul. The road to Baron lingers through one of the most dry and poor areas of central Jawa. The friendly green sawah’s have been replaced by bald limestone rock formations, which were pushed up from the sea thousands of years ago. A few strange trees are the only sign of something living in the area, besides some corn. Water is hard to get, and is brought there from kilometres away.
The fierce waves at the coast offer a stark difference between the dry plateau. Kukup and Krakal are one and six kilometres east of Baron. Take the minivan to Wonosari from the busstation Rejowinangun in Yogya. Change to another minivan or andong in Wonosari. Best is to return to Yogya before 4 in the afternoon, because staying a night can be a problem. A taxi back to Yogya is somewhat expensive here too.
Thirty kilometres south of Yogya is Samas, a tremendous hot black beach with fierce waves breaking on it. Swimming is a very dangerous sport here too. There are some food stalls, but there is no place to stay for the night. The beach can be reached with busses with destination Samas (via Bantul). You can go here with own transport, there is no parking service in Samas, but since it’s a small fishing village, there is nothing more than some polluted beaches and wilderness. It is for sure a lot more quiet than the beach of Parangtritis, especially during weekends.
Glagah is a big black sandbeach southwest of Yogya, where a recreational park is to be built. Along the small inlets, shadow rich places form an ideal place for picknicking and just resting, while the fog over the low waves guarantees a very good sunset. The bamboo structures in the sea are fish-traps. Swimming is not allowed here too. There are some foodstalls, but there is no place to stay for the night. Glagah too, can be reached by busses with destination Glagah-Congot. It leaves from downtown Yogya.
The notched rock formations and the fierce seas meet eachother on the black beach of Parangtritis, 28 kilometers south of Yogyakarta. It’s slamming waves, salty sea winds, humid nights and continuously changing black sand dunes make Parangtritis into a place of myths, mystics and meditation. Everywhere, beaches, lakes, paths, caves and burial sites tell their own stories. Watching over the fierce waves, the steep hills in the back, it looks like if the beach whispers stories to you about royal meetings, meditating hermits and lost lives.
On the beach, improvised sunshades give some protection against the burning hot sun. Strong sucking and pushing currents make swimming a life-treathening event on this beach. This is the domain of Ratu Kidul, the Queen of the Southern Sea, which doesn’t hesitate to make new victims for serving her underwater court. Ratu Kidul is attracted by green-yellow colors (gadung melati). On the beach Jawanese will never wear these clothes, it is strongly suggested that you don’t do that either when you visit these beaches.
The beach itself isn’t much to be proud of for the locals here. The beach has beautiful black sand, but it’s not cleaned at all. Paper, plastic and other junk lies scattered over the lower sand dunes. The waves regularly bring in new wood and bamboo, washing ashore from another nearby beach probably. Some wood is picked and taken away by locals to be used for their own house, but the remaining debris is never cleaned. People here just wait for another layer of sand to close it off again, or until a next freak wind takes it to a next beach again. This doesn’t make it a nice beach to walk around barefoot.
The story goes that Panembahan Senopati stayed with Ratu Kidul in the underwater palace, and she tought him about politics and the art of love. The unresistable goddess became his wife, just as she became with descendants of Senopati. She is still seen as the thriving force behind the royal families of Yogyakarta and Solo.
In Parangkusomo, one kilometer southwest of Parangtritis, is the place where Senopati rose from the sea again, it’s surrounded by a stone wall. The sultan of Yogyakarta brings his ritual sacrifices to Ratu Kidul at this place. Many Jawanese visit this place for help, good advice and to pray for mercy. The best moment for a visit is a Thursday evening, especially the one before Friday Kliwon; but you can go there always.
In many travel guides you will find a short description of the ‘Black Sand Dunes’ of Parangtritis. If you buy a map of Java, you will probabl find a star marking the spot as being a nice tourist attraction or a viewpoint. Both is much to high of a proper rating for this containerload of sand. These naturally formed dunes are not too large and are directly along the main road from Yogyakarta to Parangtritis.
An ideal place to escape the tremendous heat of the plateau, is the mountain village of Kaliurang, located higher in the mountains, 24 kilometers north of the city of Yogyakarta, or about half an hour by car. At an altitude of about 900 metres on the southern side of the Merapi, it’s remarkably cool. When the weather is clear, hard to predict any way, the view is astonishing and the area is good for walking too.
The first, short route, leads to the Pronojiwo hill. The second ends after 2.5 kilometres at the seismologic station of Plawangan, which precisely looks at the activity of Merapi. The third route is the most serious one, it will take you to the crater of the vulcano, whenever it’s safe enough to go there.
|Day 1 : TRANSFER IN – YOGYAKARTA CITY – ART & CRAFT TOUR
Arrival in Yogyakarta Airport, meeting service, then transfer to Hotel . After Lunch at local restaurant, immediately Yogyakarta City Tour, to visit “Kraton” the magnificent palace of the Sultan, Taman Sari water castle and bird market. Late afternoon, we drive to the rural of the villages in the south part of Yogyakarta City to see the activities of the local people, to see their houses, rooms, kitchens, etc. and also visit home industry of batik-making center to see the artisans at work, the original home of Jogja’s silverware in Kotagede, then Pucung village, the center of primitive statues from woods, then we drive on to Kasongan village, see the art of pottery making to unique designs, afterward Gendeng village to see shadow puppet maker at work and Krebet village, the center of many kind of handicraft from woods in “batik” finishing touch. Drive back to hotel in Yogyakarta City for accommodation.
Day 2 : YOGYAKARTA – BOROBUDUR TEMPLE – KETEP PASS – CEPOGO – SOLO
Breakfast at hotel, we check out hotel in the morning then transfer to Solo with circling of Merapi volcano, include to visit Borobudur Buddhist temple. If we’re lucky we can see the brown sugar processing near Pawon temple by local people. Drive to Solo via Ketep Pass between Merapi & Merbabu Volcano, include stop for observation Merapi Volcano and audiovisual cinema of Mount Merapi activities. Afterward drive to Solo via Selo village and Boyolali district include stop to visit Cepogo village, famous as central of cooper home industry. Lunch and Dinner will be provided at the local restaurant. Arrival in Solo, overnight at Hotel
Day 3 : SOLO CITY – SUKUH TEMPLE – PRAMBANAN TEMPLE – YOGYAKARTA
Breakfast at hotel, morning at 07.00 AM. depart for Sukuh Temple on the slope of Mount Lawu to see the erotic Hindu temple from 14th.Century, that similar with Mayan temple in Mexico. At 10.00 AM. we drive back to Yogyakarta include visit to Solo City to see Mangkunegaran’s or Kasunanan’s Palace, Klewer batik super market, flea market and Radya Pustaka Museum. After Lunch at local restaurant in Solo, we drive to Yogyakarta include to visit Prambanan Hindu temple, Sewu, Plaosan and Kalasan Budhist temple from 9th.Century. Arrival in Yogyakarta, then transfer to Hotel .
Day 4 : TRANSFER OUT YOGYAKARTA
Breakfast at hotel. Morning free at leisure until time of departure to the airport for the next destination.The end of services
World Heritages in Central Java