indonesia travel magazine

Sumbawa Tambora Utara Wildlife Reserve and Tambora Selatan Hunting Park

Sumbawa

Tambora Utara Wildlife Reserve and
Tambora Selatan Hunting Park

Tambora, Tambora Utara, Wildlife Reserve,  Suaka Margasatwa,
General
Tambora Utara Wildlife Reserve (80,000 ha.) and Tambora Selatan Hunting Park (30,000 ha.) are two protected sites located in the NW of Bima peninsular. The area is very mountainous and is dominated by Gunung Tambora (2,851 m.), an old, originally almost 4,000 m. high volcano which exploded in 1815 in what is known as the greatest eruption in modern geological times.
Both reserves are covered with primary forests dominated by Duabanga moluccana, although on the southern slopes of Gunung Tambora large parts of the original forest has been logged. These southern slopes are covered by Alang-alang. The rest of the area consists of a vast open area, dissected by seasonally dry riverbeds.
In the 6km wide caldera of Gunung Tambora a crater lake exists. The inner slopes are very steep and barren but yet, you can descend and camp near the lake.
Access
The Gunung Tambora area can be reached:
* by boat from Air Bari on Sumbawa Besar. To get to Air Bari take a minibus from Sumbawa Besar. In Air Bari boats can be hired to take you across to Calabai.
* by speed-boat from Badas harbour in Sumbawa Besar to Calabai (1 hr.).
* by bus from Bima to Calabai (13 hrs.).
* by truck from Dompu to Calabai (8 hrs.).
In Calabai register at the local police station. From Calabai it’s another 15 km. by motorcycle, truck or horse-drawn cart to Pancasila, the entree point for the ascent of Gunung Tambora summit.
You definitely need a guide to reach the summit. They can be hired in Pancasila, Sumbawa Besar or Bima.
Accommodation
* Calabai
o Timber cooperation Guesthouse
Trekking
Pancasila – Gunung Tambora 2-3 days.
Flora
* Alang-alang – Cylindrica imperata
* Dendrocnide stimulans
* Duabanga molluccana
* Eugenia sp.
* Ixora sp.

Birds
Bubulcus ibis Ciconia episcopus
Egretta alba

Egretta garzetta

Halcyon chloris

Tringa hypoleucos

Mammals
* Long-tailed macaque – Macaca fascicularis
* Rusa deer – Cervus timorensis
* Wild boar – Sus scrofa

The lost kingdom of Tambora is found

http://www.physorg.com/news11256.html

Published: February 28, 2006
General Science
The lost kingdom of Tambora is found
History’s largest volcanic eruption destroyed the island kingdom of Tambora in 1815 and now the first remnants of a Tambora village have been found.
The eruption of Mount Tambora on the Indonesian island of Sumbawa in 1815, the largest volcanic eruption in human history, killed 117,000 people and extinguished the tiny kingdom of Tambora. After 20 years of research, a scientist from the University of Rhode Island’s Graduate School of Oceanography has located the first remnants of a Tamboran village under 10 feet of ash and has unearthed the first clues about its culture.

In a six-week archaeological dig in the summer of 2004, URI Professor Haraldur Sigurdsson and colleagues from the University of North Carolina and the Indonesian Directorate of Volcanology excavated a Tamboran home where they found the remains of two adults as well as bronze bowls, ceramic pots, iron tools and other artifacts. The design and decoration of the artifacts suggest that the Tamboran culture was linked to Vietnam and Cambodia, and its language was related to that of the Mon-Khmer group of languages that are now scattered across Southeast Asia.

There’s potential that Tambora could be the Pompeii of the East, and it could be of great cultural interest,-÷ said Sigurdsson, who believes the village includes a large wooden palace that he hopes to find on a future expedition. All the people, their houses and culture are still encapsulated there as they were in 1815. It’s important that we keep that capsule intact and open it very carefully.-÷ (Pompeii was similarly wiped out by the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius, and a treasure trove of artifacts from the Roman culture were discovered encapsulated in the ash.)

During the eruption, Mount Tambora ejected up to 100 cubic kilometers of magma and pulverized rock, and it spewed ash and 400 million tons of sulfurous gases 44 kilometers into the atmosphere. The gases that lingered in the atmosphere caused a year of global cooling in 1816 that is now known as the year without a summer-÷ and which caused disease epidemics and worldwide food shortages due to crop failures. The growing season in New England declined by 100 days that year, which led to the start of a movement by farmers to abandon farming in the region and move west.

Sigurdsson made his first visit to Mount Tambora in 1986 with URI colleague Steven Carey to calculate the size of the eruption. They returned two years later to explore the volcano’s 1,250-meter-deep caldera or crater.

It’s a remote island with very little access, so it has been little studied over the years,-÷ Sigurdsson said. My primary motivation was to study the effects the eruption had on society.-÷

A guide hired by the URI scientists during their second visit to the island told them about ancient objects the local people had found in the jungle 25 kilometers west of the caldera. When Sigurdsson returned to visit the site in 2004, he explored a gully that cut through a 10-foot thick deposit of volcanic pumice and ash where he soon found the first evidence of the village -√ pottery shards and carbonized lumber. Using radar to look deep into the ground, the scientist quickly found and unearthed a small house built on stilts that rest on foundation stones.

Everything we found had been carbonized,-÷ Sigurdsson said. It had turned to charcoal from the heat of the magma.-÷

Based on the artifacts he found, particularly the many bronze objects, Sigurdsson believes that the Tamborans were not poor people at all. They were actually quite well off.-÷ Historical evidence supports that belief, as Tamborans had been famous in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappan wood for producing red dye, and sandalwood used for incense and medications.

According to Sigurdsson, the village was located 5 kilometers inland, where the residents were safe from pirates that frequently captured coastal residents and forced them into slavery. The site had also been highly productive for growing crops.

Sigurdsson intends to return to Tambora in 2007 to find the palace and the rest of the village. He will conduct a detailed radar survey of the site using modern, non-destructive techniques to establish the extent of the town and identify target sites for future excavations.

In the evening of 5 April 1815

http://library.thinkquest.org/17457/volcanoes/effects.tambora.php

In the evening of 5 April 1815 the lieutenant-governor of Java, Sir Stamford Raffles, instructed two boats in Batavia (the present Djakarta) to go to the Javasea because incredible explosions were heard (they thought there was a ship in danger).

Later it would come clear that it was the 2850m high Tambora composite volcano, which was erupting from the 10th of April 1815, that caused the loud noise.

In total 10,000 people on Soembawa and the islands around it had been killed, after which 82,000 people would die from starvation and diseases (a cholera epidemic broke out).

A big part of Soembawa was covered with a 1.5m ashlayer, the sea around the island was strew with dead trees and big pumice stones (a light, brittle and spongy volcanian stone which can absorb a very big amount of gas through which it can float) were floating around.

A week later when the heavy eruptions had come to an end, the Tambora was not 4,500 metres tall anymore, but only 2,850 metres!

The Tambora was burning and rumbling for 3 months before there came a state of rest. The hardest explosions were audible until a distance of 1500 kilometres and a surface of approximately 500000m2 had been covered with ash. However, the most extensive effect was that people around the world noticed something strange about the climate.

Geologists (of our time) have calculated that the Tambora has spit around 1,700,000 tons of debrea into the air. Most of the debrice fell down again in the neighbourhood of Soembawa. The rest of the debrice was pulverized to a talcous dust which was so light it was hanging in the atmosphere. The dust was carried high into the stratosphere where it began to float around the earth. Due to this immense cloud of dust a part of the incoming sunlight was bounced back into space, through which the earth was given less sunlight. The dust also worked like a big filter which caused beautiful orange sunsets.

Although nobody was in the opportunity to study the eruption of Tambora from close, the reports on the intensity of the eruption and the surface on which ash has fallen provided an addition to the view people had on volcanology these days.

As late as 1847, 30 years after the eruption, the first pure scientific expedition, with the Swiss researcher Zollinger as the captain, went on his way with the goal to study the Tambora.

Country: Indonesia
Subregion Name: Lesser Sunda Islands (Indonesia)
Volcano Number: 0604-03=
Volcano Type: Stratovolcano
Volcano Status: Historical
Last Known Eruption: 2010 
Summit Elevation: 3726 m 12,224 feet
Latitude: 8.42°S 8°25’0″S
Longitude: 116.47°E 116°28’0″E
Rinjani volcano on the island of Lombok rises to 3726 m, second in height among Indonesian volcanoes only to Sumatra’s Kerinci volcano. Rinjani has a steep-sided conical profile when viewed from the east, but the west side of the compound volcano is truncated by the 6 x 8.5 km, oval-shaped Segara Anak caldera. The western half of the caldera contains a 230-m-deep lake whose crescentic form results from growth of the post-caldera cone Barujari at the east end of the caldera. Historical eruptions at Rinjani dating back to 1847 have been restricted to Barujari cone and consist of moderate explosive activity and occasional lava flows that have entered Segara Anak lake.

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